Finding Continuity and Discontinuity in Fish Schools via Integrated Information Theory [article]

Takayuki Niizato, Kotaro Sakamoto, Yoh-ichi Mototake, Takenori Tomaru, Tomotaro Hoshika, Toshiki Fukushima
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Collective behaviour is known to be the result of diverse dynamics and is sometimes likened to a living system. Although many studies have revealed the dynamics of various collective behaviours, their main focus was on the information process inside the collective, not on the whole system itself. For example, the qualitative difference between two elements and three elements as a system has rarely been investigated. Tononi et al. have proposed Integrated Information Theory (IIT) to measure the
more » ... egree of consciousness Φ. IIT postulates that the amount of information loss caused by certain partitions is equivalent to the degree of information integration in the system. This measure is not only useful for estimating the degree of consciousness but can also be applied to more general network systems. Here we applied IIT (in particular, IIT 3.0 using PyPhi) to analyse real fish schools ( Plecoglossus altivelis). Our hypothesis in this study is a very simple one: a living system evolves to raise its Φ value. If we accept this hypothesis, IIT reveals the existence of continuous and discontinuous properties as group size varies. For example, leadership in the fish school emerged for a school size of four or above; but not below three. Furthermore, this transition was not observed by measuring mutual information or in a simple Boids model. This result suggests that integrated information Φ can reveal some inherent properties which cannot be observed using other measures. We also discuss how the fish recognition of the figure-ground relation, that is, what determines the relevant ON and OFF states, may reveal various optimal paths for obtaining the functional evolution of collective behaviour.
arXiv:1812.00718v1 fatcat:pzx2hlwpfvhubeel3amoiuottu