The protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on oxidative stress in PC12 cells and SAMP8 mice
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorders, in which oxidative stress plays an important role. The present study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-enriched PL) from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on oxidative injury in PC12 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). We also studied the effect of EPA-enriched PL on learning and memory functions in senescence-accelerated prone mouse
... d prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) in vivo. Pretreatment with EPA-enriched PL resulted in an enhancement of survival in a dosedependent manner in H 2 O 2 or t-BHP damaged PC12 cells. EPA-enriched PL pretreatment could also reduce the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increase the intracellular total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with the H 2 O 2 or t-BHP group. The downregulated Bcl-2 mRNA level and up-regulated Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 mRNA expression induced by H 2 O 2 or t-BHP could be restored by EPA-enriched PL pretreatment. These results demonstrated that EPA-enriched PL exhibited its neuroprotective effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity, which might be achieved by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. The neuroprotective effect of EPA-enriched PL was also verified in vivo test: the EPA-enriched PL administration prevented the development of learning and memory impairments in SAMP8 mice. Our results indicated that EPA-enriched PL could offer an efficient and novel strategy to explore novel drugs or functional food for neuronprotection and cognitive improvement.