Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using a Plant-Derived Surfactant for Dye Separation in Wastewater Treatment
Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is one of several membrane methods used for the removal of trace organic pollutants from aqueous streams. In this process, a surfactant is added to a polluted aqueous solution at a concentration higher than its critical micelle concentration (CMC). Unlike synthetic surfactants, natural surfactants, from plants such as the saponin, while ecologically adaptable as surfactants in MEUF systems, are also biodegradable, renewable, and environmentally safe.
... nmentally safe. This study applied Sapindus rarak extract as the natural surfactant in MEUF for Remazol dye separation. It was found that the presence of Sapindus rarak extract increased separation of Remazol red and blue dyes by up to 97.02% and 99.42%, respectively. However, the addition of surfactant decreased permeate fluxes due to membrane fouling and concentration polarization. In addition, loading micelle (Lm), representing the performance of the surfactant micelle for dye separation, as well as the blocking mechanism, was investigated. Lm was found to be in the range of 0.002–0.068 mM dyes/mM saponin. Ultrafiltration blocking mechanisms, as confirmed by the Hermia model, were: standard blocking, for cases without the addition of surfactant; cake formation, for cases with surfactant below the CMC; and complete blocking, for cases with surfactant above the CMC.