Energy Management of the Power-Split Hybrid Electric City Bus Based on the Stochastic Model Predictive Control

Rong Yang, Xiaohu Yang, Wei Huang, Song Zhang
2020 IEEE Access  
The energy management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles is of significant importance to improve the fuel economy. In this regard, two energy management strategies are designed for power-split hybrid electric city bus (HECB), which are based on the linear time-varying stochastic model predictive control (LTV-SMPC) and stochastic model predictive control based on Pontriagin's minimum principle (PMP-SMPC). In the present study, the Markov chain and long short-term memory (LSTM) forecast demand
more » ... orque and velocity respectively are applied to establish a combination forecast model. Then several processes, including linear approximation, processing simplified control model, the proposed nonlinear vehicle model is converted into a linear time-varying model. Meanwhile, the energy management problem in a linear quadratic programming problem is solved. Considering linearization error and limitations of the quadratic optimization, Pontriagin's minimum principle (PMP) is applied to optimize the nonlinear model predictive control. Based on the reference theory, the range of coordinated variables is derived, and the optimal coordination variable is searched by dichotomy to realize the rolling optimization of the model predictive control (MPC). Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy is verified by simulating several case studies. Obtained results show that compared with the rule-based (RB) control strategy, the fuel economy of LTV-SMPC and PMP-SMPC increases by 8.79% and 14.42%, respectively. Meanwhile, it is concluded that the two strategies have real-time computing potential. INDEX TERMS Hybrid electric city bus, stochastic model predictive control, combination forecast, Markov chain, long short-term memory, Pontryagin's minimum principle.
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3047113 fatcat:yuq3ddkwxvaddpigj7tkywzmiy