The Mediating Role of Presence on Consumer Intention to Participate in a Social Commerce Site
Journal of Internet Commerce
This study aimed to analyze how resource variables (health status, economic affordability, social network, social capital, and neighborhood environment) influence citizens' intention to pay for and participate in disaster management and safety activities. We compared four psychometric paradigm variables with five resource variables and analyzed how the latter moderate the relationships of the perception variables with intention to pay and to participate. A regression analysis revealed that
... revealed that willingness to pay was mainly explained by trust, followed by social capital, economic affordability, perceived risk, and experience, respectively. Participation was explained by knowledge, social capital, age, trust, and social network, respectively. Gender, trust, and social capital had an influence both on willingness to pay and to participate. Perceived risk, knowledge, and trust had a moderating effect on willingness to pay, but this effect depended on the quality of the neighborhood environment. Trust, knowledge, and stigma had a moderating effect on participation intention, but this effect depended on social capital and the neighborhood environment. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3377 2 of 25 map was created through a stream participated in by citizens.  . Therefore, recent disasters that occurred worldwide have drawn new attention to citizen activities. Particularly, public cooperation and participation in disaster preparedness affect both informal and formal responses to disaster situations. Citizens' activities and participation in disaster management have a variety of influences on disaster preparedness and resilience  . Based on both theory and the disaster recovery literature, Vallance  studied the possible relationship between actual participation in specific activities (the "fact" of recovery) and the decision to participate (the "process" framework of citizens' recovery activities) in disaster management. Findings revealed an urgent need for participation in disaster recovery, in terms of both procedural and practical aspects. Citizen participation and cooperation play a decisive role when real disasters occur. An empirical study by Kweit and Kweit  found a difference in the resilience of a city in the United States after a massive flood in 1997 where both local governments, which actively depended on the federal government, and citizens participated actively. Particularly, local governments with citizens' active participation showed higher resilience and satisfaction among their citizens than those that relied solely on the federal government. Through experiments, Kweit and Kweit  analyzed civil participation related to disasters. They found that although citizens' actual participation did not affect their satisfaction or have any negative effects, it affected disaster management significantly. In a disaster, it is not only important to participate in disaster prevention and recovery but also to pay for such activities. Generally, the government safeguards citizens' lives and property from the threat of disasters and provides support to encourage individuals, businesses, and communities to return to a normal state when a disaster occurs. However, all governmental activities involve costs. The cost of activities by the government can be finally attributed to taxpayers  . Therefore, payment or intention to pay is an important factor in disaster management. For example, in 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake shook the coast of Ecuador, resulting in 663 deaths, 6274 injured individuals, and 80,000 displaced individuals. Further, it caused significant damage to infrastructure. The Ecuadorian government responded to the crisis by setting a reconstruction budget of $3344 million under the Solidarity Law . This law specified the payment of costs by citizens to finance reconstruction activities and their civic responsibility to reconstruct affected areas. To create the fund for reconstruction activities, the Solidarity Law, implemented in May 2016, imposed a 3.3% tax and value-added tax (VAT) for one year  . The Solidarity Law, effective from May 2016, established the following required contributions from citizens to help address the earthquake's aftermath and recovery efforts: an increase in value added tax for one year; an 8-month 3.3% payment from employment wages; a less-than-one percent stipend gathered from equities exceeding one million dollars; existing real property taxation of 3.3%; and a 3% contribution from realized profits  . Despite the important role of payment and participation in overcoming disasters, these topics have not been studied adequately. Although there have been previous studies about payment toward the cost of disaster preparation, they focused only on the domain of individuals' willingness to apply for insurance related to natural disasters in order to be protected from danger       . In disaster situations, payment and participation for the benefit of the community are very important, rather than spending on insurance, which is directly related to personal interests. However, research on this topic is very scarce       . Accordingly, the present study aimed to identify causal factors that may affect citizens' willingness to pay for disaster management activities and to participate in disaster situations. Theoretical Background and Research Model Role of Citizens' Participation in and Payment toward the Cost of Disaster Recovery/Management Citizens' participation and willingness to pay are key to disaster management. Participation refers to individuals' degree of intervention and responsiveness to disasters. Individuals who are prepared for disaster management may be less afraid and anxious  , may have greater self-efficacy [20, 21] , and may recover faster when they face a disaster. Moreover, citizens can help others in times of disaster. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3377 3 of 25 In fact, when disaster strikes, because citizens are present at the scene of a disaster, they can be the "true" first responders, who can actively address community needs by participating in activities such as the restoration of public services and infrastructure       . Therefore, the government expects more efficient solutions by encouraging individuals to participate in disaster management. Individuals' active participation in disaster management appears to be effective in disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery  . Several empirical studies have examined the role of citizen participation. According to Oulahen and Doberstein , citizens' participation in disaster management is defined as a standard feature of democratic planning. They reported that risk mitigation during disastrous floods in Peterborough was characterized by citizens' strong participation, which resulted in successful disaster management. Additionally, by analyzing citizens' use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) to identify their participation in disaster management, Song  demonstrated that such activities help them share information and make decisions, finally contributing to reducing the uncertainty of a disaster. Compared to research on the effects of citizens' participation in disaster management, studies on the payment of costs related to disasters have focused only on determinants of such costs. From the utility perspective, the quality of service and the beneficiary's satisfaction primarily determine the level of payment. Donahue et al.  reported that attitudes and satisfaction are important in facilitating the prediction of willingness to pay for government policies. Beck et al.  found that general satisfaction with communities is more important than demographic factors in determining the support for tax policies. Simonsen and Robbins  used survey data to examine whether citizens' tax preferences are affected by their perceived quality of government services. They found that attitudes toward the government and its services were an important determinant of support for taxes. Glaser and Hildreth  asked respondents to indicate whether they would be willing to pay for an increase in taxes or fees for 14 different services in exchange for increased services. About half of the respondents who were satisfied with the government's performance expressed willingness to pay additional taxes, whereas others with low satisfaction showed a lower willingness to pay. Other studies focus on empirical and structural elements, not satisfaction. For example, Wang et al.  found that an individual's willingness to pay toward disaster management depended heavily on his/her disaster experience. As residents from relatively high-risk areas were highly dependent on the government, they revealed a low willingness to pay for disaster management. Interestingly, none of these studies systematically examine the factors that determine willingness to participate and pay. Therefore, the present study analyzes the effects of "perception" and "resources" on individuals' intention to pay for and participate in reducing the "scale" or "magnitude" of a disaster related to climate change that seriously threatens health and life. The Psychometric Paradigm versus the Resource-Based Approach Author Contributions: Formal analysis, J.W.; funding acquisition, J.E.L.; methodology, D.K.; project administration, J.H.L.; resources, K.K.; supervision, C.A.; writing-original draft, S.A.K.; writing-review and editing, S.K. and B.-C.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.