Nonlinear MHD simulations of QH-mode DIII-D plasmas and implications for ITER high Q scenarios
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Liu, Feng; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Loarte, A.; Garofalo, A.M.; Solomon, W.M.; Hoelzl, M.; Nkonga, B.; Pamela, S.; Becoulet, M.; Orain, F.; van Vugt, D.C. Abstract In nonlinear MHD simulations of DIII-D QH-mode plasmas it has been found that low n kink/ peeling modes (KPMs) are unstable and grow to a saturated kink-peeling mode. The features of the dominant saturated KPMs, which are localised toroidally by nonlinear coupling of harmonics, such as mode frequencies, density fluctuations and their
... ons and their effect on pedestal particle and energy transport, are in good agreement with the observations of the edge harmonic oscillation typically present in DIII-D QH-mode experiments. The nonlinear evolution of MHD modes including both kink-peeling modes and ballooning modes, is investigated through MHD simulations by varying the pedestal current and pressure relative to the initial conditions of DIII-D QH-mode plasma. The edge current and pressure at the pedestal are key parameters for the plasma either saturating to a QH-mode regime or a ballooning mode dominant regime. The influence of E×B flow and its shear on the QH-mode plasma has been investigated. E×B flow shear has a strong stabilisation effect on the medium to high-n modes but is destabilising for the n=2 mode. The QH-mode extrapolation results of an ITER Q=10 plasma show that the pedestal currents are large enough to destabilise n=1-5 KPMs, leading to a stationary saturated kink-peeling mode.