Harmful Effects of COVID-19 on Major Human Body Organs: A Review

Md. Rayhan Chowdhury, Md. Atik Mas-ud, Md Roushan Ali, Mst Fatamatuzzohora, Ajmeri Sultana Shimu, Md. Anamul Haq, Md. Ashikul Islam, Md. Firose Hossain, Md. Hosenuzzaman, Md. Mominul Islam, Md. Faruk Hasan, Mohammad Nurul Matin
2021 Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology  
The world experienced the outbreak of a new pandemic disease in 2019, known as coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The respiratory system is the organ system most commonly affected by COVID-19; however, several other organ systems have been reported to be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA found in infected stub samples can cause lung contagion by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor
more » ... the alveolar epithelial cells. The gut microbiota (GM) promote immunity, indicating that the alignment of the microbiota and corresponding metabolic processes in COVID-19 can help to identify novel biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for this disease. The cause of kidney damage in COVID-19 patients is possibly multifactorial, involving a complex mechanism that involves complement dysregulation and thrombotic microangiopathy, as well as the occurrence of a "cytokine storm" syndrome, which are immune responses that are abandoned and dysfunctional with unfavorable prognosis in severe COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, COVID-19 involves a continuous proliferation and activation of macrophages and lymphocytes. SARS-CoV-2 can also bind to the ACE-2 receptor expressed in the cerebral capillary endothelial cells that can invade the blood-brain wall, to penetrate the brain parenchyma. However, in the ongoing pandemic, there has been a surge in studies on a wide range of topics, including causes of respiratory failure, asymptomatic patients, intensive care patients, and survivors. This review briefly describes the damaging effects of COVID-19 on vital human organs and the inhibitory function of the ACE-2 receptor on the GM, which causes gut dysbiosis, and thus, this review discusses topics that have an opportunity for further investigation.
doi:10.22207/jpam.15.2.14 fatcat:2d3a55wiozeirpponhwltrirva