Foreword

N. Viswanadham
<span title="">1987</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/cuymmrn4wzf6xkpjp5avqt7ol4" style="color: black;">Sadhana (Bangalore)</a> </i> &nbsp;
Foreword The importance of fault-tolerance and reliability issues in real-time computer control systems might easily be appreciated in the context of the ever increasing use of computers in application areas such as control of hazardous chemical plants and nuclear reactors in process industry, battle management and weapon delivery in defence, intensive care and diagnostic systems in health care and control systems for air and high-speed ground transportation. The use of computers in such
more &raquo; ... , for fault-detection and diagnosis, and system reconfiguration, has the potential of dramatically improving the operational effectiveness of real-time systems. The computer system being the principal component of monitoring and control equipment, its failure could result in disastrous consequences, and hence, such a system should be installed only after adequate demonstration of its required level of reliability. Real-time computer control systems have three major constituents: the physical plant, the computer system and the instrumentation system that interfaces the plant with the computer. The human operator also plays a crucial role especially in emergencies. Equipment failures, malfunctions of sensors, actuators, computer hardware and software, and operator lapses may cause major damage to the system, endanger human life and may turn the environment toxic. Systematic design of reliable computer control systems is therefore an important and a very challenging task. The system has to maintain optimal performance during normal operation, and must also cope with randomly occurring emergencies during which the plant conditions are hostile, by taking corrective actions with strict real-time. deadlines. A preliminary failure cause-consequence analysis should be performed for the computer controlled system to identify the potential hazards associated with failures in each of the subsystems and the human operator. Such an analysis would reveal the criticality of each of the faults. Hazard analysis techniques based on Failure modes and effects analysis, Event trees, Fault trees, Digraphs, and Cause-consequence diagrams are useful for this purpose. A fault-diagnostic system is then designed to detect, diagnose and compensate for these failures and is implemented via software along with other monitoring and control functions. Expert systems, Kaiman filters, observers, parity space techniques, fault trees, detection filters etc. are used in the design of the fault diagnostic system. These algorithms are implemented using fault-tolerant hardware and software. The design of fault-tolerant systems is thus a complex problem requiring expertise from a variety of disciplines. In this special issue, we concentrate on the reliability and fault-tolerance issues in real-time computer systems. We organise the papers in four sections:
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