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Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD 50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve theirdoi:10.1093/ilar.43.suppl_1.s27 pmid:12388848 fatcat:tafvulmhdbaojfxwra6dglb54y