Flight Patterns ofGryllotalpa africana(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in South Africa

Johan De Graaf, At S. Schoeman, Rick L. Brandenburg
2004 Environmental Entomology  
Flights of univoltine mole crickets are usually female biased and peak during spring and autumn. A male Gryllotalpa africana Palisot de Beauvois song recording was broadcast weekly at 93.7 dB (200 mm from speakers, 20 Pa) just after sunset for 1.5 h over an annual period. Attracted individuals (conspeciÞcs) were sexed and females were dissected. Temperatures were measured at each sampling date, and moon phase was recorded. Adult G. africana ßew to the song broadcast from spring to autumn, with
more » ... ctivity peaking mid-spring and again in late summer to early autumn. Spring ßights were characterized by a signiÞcant female bias, whereas sexes were present in equal proportions during summer and autumn. The monthly sex ratio of ßying individuals was not signiÞcantly different from that of mole crickets sampled in the Þeld. Flying females were only reproductively mature in spring to early summer and contained eggs beginning in late spring. Eggs per ßying female declined into summer. Flight activity and gender of G. africana were signiÞcantly positively related to temperature, with air temperature showing the highest degree of correlation. Moon phase showed no signiÞcant relationship with the total number of ßying individuals or that of genders.
doi:10.1603/0046-225x-33.5.1431 fatcat:pyo65azim5bjliv2dt3ezvz2pu