Sensor-based M2M Agriculture Monitoring Systems for Developing Countries: State and Challenges
Network Protocols and Algorithms
Machine to machine (M2M) communication networks consist of thousands of low cost, low energy, low computational power and memory sensors nodes. Due to the autonomous monitoring, self organization, low power consumptions and remote accessibility of sensors, M2M communication networks gain momentum in environmental monitoring, pollution detection, agriculture, disasters monitoring and many similar applications. It is evident that Network Protocols and Algorithms ISSN 1943-3581 2013
... org/npa 69 sensor-based agriculture monitoring systems are being designed and implemented mostly in the context of developed countries. However, these monitoring systems do not focus on the implementation of sensor-based M2M networks for the benefit of farmers in developing countries. This paper presents (i) the current state of the art research in sensor-based M2M communication networks for agriculture monitoring, (ii) several existing agricultural monitoring systems and compare them on different design factors, (iii) the technical framework of some recent deployment of agriculture monitoring systems in developing countries and their design challenges and (iv) major design and implementation differences of these monitoring systems in developed and developing countries. 70 sensors include low power radio and power management mechanisms to conserve energy for a longer time network operation. Hence, sensors are used as the integral part of M2M communication networks for different monitoring applications especially, agricultural monitoring. Agriculture monitoring systems mainly focus on monitoring the growth of crops, irrigation systems, monitoring and control of animals. Recently, many sensor-based agriculture monitoring systems have been designed and implemented (mostly for developed countries). However, only a few agricultural monitoring systems based on M2M communication networks exist in the literature such as agent-based M2M agricultural decision support system  , and crop growth model  . Moreover, these systems do not consider using sensor-based M2M networks in the agriculture systems of developing countries [1, 5] .