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Hierarchical data structures are important for many computing and information science disciplines including data mining, terrain modeling, and image analysis. There are many specialized hierarchical data management systems, but they are not always available. Alternatively, relational databases are far more common and offer superior reliability, scalability, and performance. However, relational databases cannot natively store and manage hierarchical data. Labeling schemes resolve this issue bydoi:10.2498/cit.1002310 fatcat:lb7oqkcy4fc7rkrju4xcfihsyu