Integrating Deep Neural Networks with Full-waveform Inversion: Reparametrization, Regularization, and Uncertainty Quantification
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an accurate imaging approach for modeling velocity structure by minimizing the misfit between recorded and predicted seismic waveforms. However, the strong non-linearity of FWI resulting from fitting oscillatory waveforms can trap the optimization in local minima. We propose a neural-network-based full waveform inversion method (NNFWI) that integrates deep neural networks with FWI by representing the velocity model with a generative neural network. Neural
... s can naturally introduce spatial correlations as regularization to the generated velocity model, which suppresses noise in the gradients and mitigates local minima. The velocity model generated by neural networks is input to the same partial differential equation (PDE) solvers used in conventional FWI. The gradients of both the neural networks and PDEs are calculated using automatic differentiation, which back-propagates gradients through the acoustic PDEs and neural network layers to update the weights of the generative neural network. Experiments on 1D velocity models, the Marmousi model, and the 2004 BP model demonstrate that NNFWI can mitigate local minima, especially for imaging high-contrast features like salt bodies, and significantly improves the inversion in the presence of noise. Adding dropout layers to the neural network model also allows analyzing the uncertainty of the inversion results through Monte Carlo dropout. NNFWI opens a new pathway to combine deep learning and FWI for exploiting both the characteristics of deep neural networks and the high accuracy of PDE solvers. Because NNFWI does not require extra training data and optimization loops, it provides an attractive and straightforward alternative to conventional FWI.