Internal bores and gravity currents in a two-fluid system

2016 Zenodo  
In this paper, a unified theory of internal bores and gravity currents is presented within the framework of the one-dimensional two-layer shallow-water equations. The equations represent four basic physical laws: the theory is developed on the basis of these laws. Though the first three of the four basic laws are apparent, the forth basic law has been uncertain. This paper shows first that this forth basic law can be deduced from the law which is called in this paper the conservation law of
more » ... ulation. It is then demonstrated that, within the framework of the equations, an internal bore is represented by a shock satisfying the shock conditions that follow from the four basic laws. A gravity current can also be treated within the framework of the equations if the front conditions, i.e. the boundary conditions to be imposed at the front of the current, are known. Basically, the front conditions for a gravity current also follow from the four basic laws. When the gravity current is advancing along a no-slip boundary, however, it is necessary to take into account the influence of the thin boundary layer formed on the boundary; this paper describes how this influence can be evaluated. It is verified that the theory can satisfactorily explain the behaviour of internal bores advancing into two stationary layers of fluid. The theory also provides a formula for the rate of advance of a gravity current along a no-slip lower boundary; this formula proves to be consistent with some empirical formulae. In addition, some well-known theoretical formulae on gravity currents turn out to be obtainable on the basis of the theory.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3925765 fatcat:kdzh3k4ujfehdku2eqybom5jlm