Early Screening for Gestational Diabetes Using IADPSG Criteria May Be a Useful Predictor for Congenital Anomalies: Preliminary Data from a High-Risk Population

Agnieszka Zawiejska, Katarzyna Wróblewska-Seniuk, Paweł Gutaj, Urszula Mantaj, Anna Gomulska, Joanna Kippen, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska
2020 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
Our aim was to investigate whether the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) glycemic thresholds used for detecting hyperglycemia in pregnancy can be predictive for malformations in women with hyperglycemia detected in early pregnancy. Methods: a single-center, retrospective observational trial of 125 mother-infant pairs from singleton pregnancies with hyperglycemia according to the IADPSG criteria diagnosed at the gestational age below 16 weeks. Glucose
more » ... alues obtained from 75-g OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) were investigated as predictors for congenital malformations in newborns. Results: Characteristics of the cohort: maternal age: 31.5 ± 5.2, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2: 42.0%, gestational age at diagnosis (weeks): 12.0 ± 4.0, and newborns with congenital malformations: 8.8%. Fasting blood glycemia (FBG) and HbA1c (Haemoglobin A1c) at baseline significantly predicted the outcome (expB: 1.06 (1.02–1.1), p = 0.007 and expB: 2.05 (1.24–3.38), p = 0.005, respectively). Both the fasting blood glucose (FBG) value of 5.1 mmol/dL (diagnostic for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)) and 5.5 mmol/dL (upper limit for normoglycemia in the general population) significantly increased the likelihood ratio (LR) for fetal malformations: 1.3 (1.1; 1.4) and 1.5 (1.0; 2.4), respectively. Conclusions: (1) Fasting glycemia diagnostic for GDM measured in early pregnancy is associated with a significantly elevated risk for congenital malformations. (2) Our data suggest that women at elevated risks of GDM/diabetes in pregnancy (DiP) should have their fasting blood glucose assessed before becoming pregnant, and the optimization of glycemic control should be considered if the FBG exceeds 5.1 mmol/dL.
doi:10.3390/jcm9113553 pmid:33158269 fatcat:woas7gnewjfnllbuiqhxpqwrxq