General stand points: Mind and body

Walter T. Marvin
1918 Psychological bulletin  
During the past year behaviorism has continued to be a prominent subject of discussion. Watson (17) has attempted to formulate the scope of behavior psychology in an article whose material is to be used in the introductory chapter of his forthcoming book, Human Psychology. He describes the procedure of common sense, the procedure of science in interpreting behavior, and the divisions of behavior psychology and its relation to other sciences. In two articles Weiss (19, 20) points out the
more » ... nts out the relations respectively between structural and behavior psychology and between functional and behavior psychology. First, without attempting to ascertain whether or not behaviorism is psychology, he endeavors to show that "the problems of the structural psychologist may be studied from the behavioristic point of view in accordance with the methods employed in the natural sciences and with a greater degree of simplicity than is possible from the structuralistic point of view." Since science recognizes only conscious states that express themselves in behavior of some form, this behavior alone calls for analysis. Again, since introspection is behavior (speech) and since introspection usually reveals only reactions to obscure stimuli, it is better to direct our study at once to behavior and especially to the major reactions, for these are the important objects to be investigated. Finally, behaviorism can analyze as far as structuralism, can present its phenomena as a causal series, and, if it succeeds in solving its problems, can solve all the problems of the structuralist also. Second, "the functionalists have never shown how mental activity may control action." On the contrary, the evidence shows that "conscious processes" follow and do not cause the conditions that modify behavior. Moreover, here as in structural psychology, verbal reactions have little if any influence upon the socially significant reactions.
doi:10.1037/h0072757 fatcat:5ahe3x7umnht5ab52xlnppkkce