Adsorption of Cadmium, Manganese and Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Spent Coffee Grounds and Biochar Produced by Its Pyrolysis in the Fluidized Bed Reactor
The adsorption process of cadmium ions (Cd), manganese ions (Mn) and lead ions (Pb) onto the spent coffee grounds (SCG) and activated spent coffee grounds (biochar, A-SCG) was investigated. The SCG activation was carried out in the pyrolysis process in a fluidized bed reactor. scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurements and CHN analysis were used in order to define
... e differences between biomaterials. In the study the different mass of materials (0.2–0.5 g) and constant heavy metal volume and concentration (20 cm3/100 ppm) were investigated on the adsorption process. In order to describe the sorption parameters the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used. The maximum adsorption for biochar reached 22.3 mg/g for Pb ions, 19.6 mg/g for Mn ions and 19.4 mg/g for Cd ions which were noticeably higher than the results obtained for spent coffee grounds which reached 13.6 mg/g for Pb ions, 13.0 mg/g for Mn ions and 11.0 mg/g for Cd ions. Metal ion adsorption on both SCG and A-SCG was best described by the Langmuir model, thus chemisorption was a dominant type of adsorption. Studying the kinetics of the sorption process, one can see that the process is of a chemical nature according to the best fit of the pseudo-second rate order model. The obtained results show that the chosen sorbents can be used for the removal of cadmium, manganese and lead compounds from aqueous solutions with high efficiency.