Resting State Functional Connectivity in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

Yvette I. Sheline, Marcus E. Raichle
2013 Biological Psychiatry  
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies using resting state fMRI, a recent addition to imaging analysis techniques. The technique analyzes ongoing low frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. Through patterns of spatial coherence, these fluctuations can be used to identify the networks within the brain. Multiple brain networks are present simultaneously and the relationships within and between networks are in constant dynamic flux. Resting
more » ... te fMRI functional connectivity (rs-fMRI) analysis is increasingly used to detect subtle brain network differences, and in the case of pathophysiology, subtle abnormalities in illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sequence of events leading up to dementia has been hypothesized to begin many years or decades before any clinical symptoms occur. Here we review the findings across rs-fMRI studies in the spectrum of preclinical AD to clinical AD. In addition, we discuss evidence for underlying preclinical AD mechanisms, including an important relationship between resting state functional connectivity and brain metabolism, and how this results in a distinctive pattern of amyloid plaque deposition in default mode network regions. Resting State fMRI Background Resting state functional connectivity fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a recent addition to imaging analysis techniques. In the literature there are several synonyms, including resting state functional connectivity, spontaneous activity, intrinsic functional connectivity and task free functional connectivity, where "functional connectivity" is used to distinguish it from structural connectivity.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.028 pmid:23290495 pmcid:PMC3537262 fatcat:msh6yrrburcjbiuosuzungl7bi