Influence of dislocations and second phases on the magnetostrictive behavior of iron-gallium and other iron alloy single crystals
Rare-earth-free Fe-Ga magnetostrictive alloys exhibit an excellent combination of large low-field magnetostriction, strength, ductility, wide operating temperature range, and low cost. Various observations in these and other α-Fe-based magnetostrictive alloys suggest that lattice strain modulations that are influenced by solute elements, near neighbor atomic environments around Fe atoms, coherent and incoherent precipitates, and structural defects such as dislocations likely play an important
... play an important role in their magnetostrictive behavior. In the first part, the effect of dislocations on the magnetostriction of Fe-Ga single crystals was examined. The -and -oriented Fe-20 at.% Ga single crystal samples were deformed in a controlled way to introduce dislocation arrays with two different array geometries. Magnetostriction values showed a much lower decrease after deformation for the case of a -oriented crystal, where eight different slip systems were operative and consequently eight different sets of dislocation arrays are expected. A drastic drop in magnetostriction measured along the sample axis is observed in the sample subjected to a small strain by deformation of a -oriented crystal during which slip occurred on only one slip system. The nature of strain modulation introduced in this case was spatially asymmetric. The  deformation was accompanied by an acoustic emission during the formation of slip band. iv Transmission electron microscopy was carried out to examine the nature of dislocation distribution. The results show that the nature of strain modulation introduced by the dislocation arrays has a strong influence on the magnetostrictive behavior of magnetostrictive alloys. In the second part of this research, the effect of Mo addition to Fe was examined in detail. Addition of Mo to Fe increased the magnetostriction (3/2)λ 100 Fe very rapidly to 137 ppm at 10 at.% Mo, the highest value observed in these alloys. Further Mo additions decreased the magnetostriction. Magnetization data show a drastic drop in magnetization to 63 emu/gm for Fe-20 at.% Mo from 176 emu/gm for Fe-10 at.% Mo suggesting the formation large amounts of nonmagnetic second phase and reduction in total Fe content of the alloy. The drop in magnetostriction at higher Mo contents is associated with the formation of a second phase.