The Main Alkaloids in Uncaria rhynchophylla and Their Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Mechanism Determined by a Network Pharmacology Approach
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing concern in modern society, and effective drugs for its treatment are lacking. Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its main alkaloids have been studied to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. This study aimed to uncover the key components and mechanism of the anti-AD effect of UR alkaloids through a network pharmacology approach. The analysis identified 10 alkaloids from UR based on HPLC that corresponded to 90 anti-AD targets. A potential alkaloid
... ial alkaloid target-AD target network indicated that corynoxine, corynantheine, isorhynchophylline, dihydrocorynatheine, and isocorynoxeine are likely to become key components for AD treatment. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed the Alzheimers disease (hsa05010) was the pathway most significantly enriched in alkaloids against AD. Further analysis revealed that 28 out of 90 targets were significantly correlated with Aβ and tau pathology. These targets were validated using a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the binding of corynoxine and corynantheine to core targets related to Aβ and tau pathology. In addition, the cholinergic synapse (hsa04725) and dopaminergic synapse (hsa04728) pathways were significantly enriched. Our findings indicate that UR alkaloids directly exert an AD treatment effect by acting on multiple pathological processes in AD.