Wet-Weather Pollution from Commonly-Used Building Materials
Impacts of Global Climate Change
Biocides are added to or applied on building materials to prevent microorganisms from growing on their surface or to treat them. They are leached into building runoff and contribute to diffuse contamination of receiving waters. This review aimed at summarizing the current state of knowledge concerning the impact of biocides from buildings on the aquatic environment. The objectives were (i) to assess the key parameters influencing the leaching of biocides and to quantify their emission from
... emission from buildings; (ii) to determine the different pathways from urban sources into receiving waters; and (iii) to assess the associated environmental risk. Based on consumption data and leaching studies, a list of substances to monitor in receiving water was established. Literature review of their concentrations in the urban water cycle showed evidences of contamination and risk for aquatic life, which should put them into consideration for inclusion to European or international monitoring programs. However, some biocide concentration data in urban and receiving waters is still missing to fully assess their environmental risk, especially for isothiazolinones, iodopropynyl carbamate, zinc pyrithione and quaternary ammonium compounds, and little is known about their transformation products. Although some models supported by actual data were developed to extrapolate emissions on larger scales (watershed or city scales), they are not sufficient to prioritize the pathways of biocides from urban sources into receiving waters during both dry and wet weathers. Our review highlights the need to reduce emissions and limit their transfer into rivers, and reports several solutions to address these issues.