Advancing of Cellular Signaling Pathways in Respiratory Diseases Using Nanocarrier based Drug Delivery Systems
Current pharmaceutical design
: Cell Signaling pathways form an integral part of our existence, that allows the cells to comprehend a stimulus and respond back. Such reactions, to external cues from the environment, are required and are essential to regulate the normal functioning of our body. Abnormalities in the system arise when there are errors developed in these signals, resulting in a complication or a disease. Presently, respiratory diseases contribute to being the third leading cause of morbidity worldwide.
... to the current statistics, over 339 million people who are asthmatic, 65 million who are suffering from COPD, 2.3 million who are lung cancer patients and 10 million are tuberculosis patients. This toll of statistics with chronic respiratory diseases leaves a heavy burden on society and nation annual health expenditure. Hence, a better understanding of the processes governing these cellular pathways will enable us to treat and manage these deadly respiratory diseases effectively. Moreover, it is important to comprehend the synergy and interplay of the cellular signaling pathways in respiratory diseases, which will enable us to explore and develop suitable strategies for targeted drug delivery. This review, in particular, focuses on the major respiratory diseases and further provides an in-depth discussion on the various cell signaling pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. Moreover, the review also analyses the defining concepts about advanced nano-drug delivery systems involving various nanocarriers and propose newer prospects to minimize the current challenges faced by researchers and formulation scientists.