Utilization of the zebrafish model to unravel the harmful effects of biomass burning during Amazonian wildfires
AbstractAmazonian wildfires in 2019 have raised awareness about rainforest burning due to increased emissions of particulate matter and carbon. In the context of these emissions, by-products of lignin thermal degradation (i.e. methoxyphenols) are often neglected. Methoxyphenols entering the atmosphere may form intermediates with currently unknown reaction mechanisms and toxicity. This study for the first time provides a comprehensive insight into the impact of lignin degradation products
... ion products [guaiacol, catechol], and their nitrated intermediates [4-nitrocatechol, 4,6-dinitroguaiacol, 5-nitroguaiacol] on zebrafish Danio rerio. Results revealed 4-nitrocatechol and catechol as the most toxic, followed by 4,6DNG > 5NG > GUA. The whole-organism bioassay integrated with molecular modeling emphasized the potential of methoxyphenols to inhibit tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, and carbonic anhydrase, consequently altering embryonic development (i.e. affected sensorial, skeletal, and physiological parameters, pigmentation formation failure, and non-hatching of larvae). The whole-organism bioassay integrated with in silico approach confirmed the harmful effects of lignin degradation products and their intermediates on aquatic organisms, emphasizing the need for their evaluation within ecotoxicity studies focused on aquatic compartments.