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Jtmerican Patents which issued in June, 1857. 237 In long chairs with the rail joint between the ties, two keyed bolts fig. 3 ,) may be used along with the staples at the ends. Another mode (fig. 5,) of securing the chair to the bars and ties, is to take the lengths of angle iron, and instead of notching at the ends, make two notches in the hooked part; the jogs in the ties are made to suit a key made of hard wood passing outside of the vertical flanches of the chair. After this key is drivendoi:10.1016/0016-0032(57)90512-4 fatcat:is2ugv6ltzhkne5vlxraxkvs7u