Gastric Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Functional Role in L-Arginine-Induced Gastric Proton Secretion
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Among mammals, serotonin is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract, where it has been shown to participate in pathway-regulating satiation. For the stomach, vascular serotonin release induced by gastric distension is thought to chiefly contribute to satiation after food intake. However, little information is available on the capability of gastric cells to synthesize, release and respond to serotonin by functional changes of mechanisms regulating gastric acid secretion. We
... whether human gastric cells are capable of serotonin synthesis and release. First, HGT-1 cells, derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the stomach, and human stomach specimens were immunostained positive for serotonin. In HGT-1 cells, incubation with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine reduced the mean serotonin-induced fluorescence signal intensity by 27%. Serotonin release of 147 ± 18%, compared to control HGT-1 cells (set to 100%) was demonstrated after treatment with 30 mM of the satiating amino acid L-Arg. Granisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, reduced this L-Arg-induced serotonin release, as well as L-Arg-induced proton secretion. Similarly to the in vitro experiment, human antrum samples released serotonin upon incubation with 10 mM L-Arg. Overall, our data suggest that human parietal cells in culture, as well as from the gastric antrum, synthesize serotonin and release it after treatment with L-Arg via an HTR3-related mechanism. Moreover, we suggest not only gastric distension but also gastric acid secretion to result in peripheral serotonin release.