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In a randomized trial of a group intervention for co-occurring substance abuse and traumatic stress disorders "Trauma Adaptive Recovery Group Education and Therapy" (TARGET) was compared to traumasensitive usual care (TSU) with 213 clients in three adult outpatient clinics. Improvement at 6-and 12-month assessments occurred across conditions. TARGET was superior to TSU in maintaining sobriety self-efficacy. How-ever, ethnic differences emerged. White TARGET participants reported moredoi:10.1080/15560350802424910 fatcat:jlw5eqgdlfborlr5uknepa5h4u