Topical Estrogen Treatment Augments the Vaginal Response to Escherichia coli Flagellin
The female climacteric or menopausal process characterised by reduced estrogen, associates with an increased risk of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) linked to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Clinically, topical vaginal estrogen treatment has a prophylactic effect against such infections. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro, the effects of a topical estrogen treatment on vaginal epithelial responses following challenge with E.coli flagellin mimicking an UPEC
... icking an UPEC challenge. Immortalised vaginal epithelial cells (VK2 E6/E7), modelling the vaginal epithelium were treated with either 4 nM 17β-estradiol (E) for seven days, 50 ng/ml E.coli flagellin (F) for 12 h, or 4 nM 17β-estradiol plus 50 ng/ml flagellin (E + F(12 h)). RNA was analysed by microarray gene profiling using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v 4 Expression Beadchip. Following E + F treatments expression of genes encoding host defence molecules including DEFβ4A, DEFB103A, LCN2 as well as those associated with keratinisation eg CNFN and SPRR family genes were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) compared to either E or F treatments alone. Mutation of estrogen responsive elements (EREs) identified in the DEFβ4 gene promoter abolished the augmented gene expression suggesting estrogen functioned directly through a regulatory mechanism involving ESR1/2. Ingenuity pathway analyses also suggested the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A to regulate the vaginal host defences during infection. Pre-treating VK2 E6/E7 cells with estrogen (4 nM) and challenging with 1L-17A & F (12 h) significantly enhanced DEFβ4, DEF103A and S100A7 expression (P < 0.05). Origins of vaginal IL-17 in vivo remain unclear, but patient biopsies support γδ T cells located within the vaginal epithelium. These data suggest that the vaginal antimicrobial response induced by flagellin activation of Toll-like Receptor 5 cell signalling is augmented following topical estrogen application.