Plant Cells under Attack: Unconventional Endomembrane Trafficking during Plant Defense
Since plants lack specialized immune cells, each cell has to defend itself independently against a plethora of different pathogens. Therefore, successful plant defense strongly relies on precise and efficient regulation of intracellular processes in every single cell. Smooth trafficking within the plant endomembrane is a prerequisite for a diverse set of immune responses. Pathogen recognition, signaling into the nucleus, cell wall enforcement, secretion of antimicrobial proteins and compounds,
... ins and compounds, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species, all heavily depend on vesicle transport. In contrast, pathogens have developed a variety of different means to manipulate vesicle trafficking to prevent detection or to inhibit specific plant responses. Intriguingly, the plant endomembrane system exhibits remarkable plasticity upon pathogen attack. Unconventional trafficking pathways such as the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies or fusion of the vacuole with the plasma membrane are initiated and enforced as the counteraction. Here, we review the recent findings on unconventional and defense-induced trafficking pathways as the plant´s measures in response to pathogen attack. In addition, we describe the endomembrane system manipulations by different pathogens, with a focus on tethering and fusion events during vesicle trafficking.