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A fast ion penetrating a solid creates a track of excitations. This can produce displacements seen as an etched track, a process initially used to detect energetic particles but now used to alter materials. From the seminal papers by Fleischer et al. [Phys. Rev. 156, 353 (1967)] to the present [C. Trautmann, S. Klaumunzer and H. Trinkaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3648 (2000)], 'Coulomb explosion' and thermal spike models are treated as conflicting models for describing ion track effects. Heredoi:10.1103/physrevlett.88.165501 pmid:11955237 fatcat:lt6e435zwfetznf3ihecu6fbju