Optimization of Water Pressure of a Distribution Network within the Water–Energy Nexus

Hossein Nasrollahi, Reza Safaei Boroujeni, Reza Shirmohammadi, Shima Najafi Nobar, Alireza Aslani, Majid Amidpour, Fontina Petrakopoulou
<span title="2021-09-09">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/smrngspzhzce7dy6ofycrfxbim" style="color: black;">Applied Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
Pressure control in water distribution networks (WDNs) reduces leaks and bursting. Thus, it is regarded as a valuable solution to cut costs related to the operation and maintenance of WDNs and it is recommended for use in deteriorated water distribution pipes. However, growing consumer demand for satisfactory performance from faucets, combined with reduced water pressure from water supply companies, has resulted in an increased need for domestic water pressure booster systems (WPBSs) and has
more &raquo; ... to an increase in the energy demand. This misalignment of interests between water companies and energy consumers highlights the water–energy nexus perspective. This research aims to find a solution for optimizing the pressure of any WDN through the application of WPBSs to simultaneously minimize the cost associated with water leaks, repairs of burst pipes, and energy consumption. This methodology is applied to Baharestan city, where an optimum pressure of 47.6 mH2O is calculated. According to the sensitivity analysis of the inputs, the optimized pressure and cost are most sensitive to water loss and leakage exponent, respectively. Moreover, the hourly optimization of water pressure based on changes in demand and energy prices throughout the day is estimated to cut costs by 41%.
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