Activation of the Hexosamine Pathway Leads to Deterioration of Pancreatic β-Cell Function through the Induction of Oxidative Stress
Journal of Biological Chemistry
It is known well that activation of the hexosamine pathway causes insulin resistance, but how this activation influences pancreatic ␤-cell function remains unclear. In this study, we found that in isolated rat islets adenovirus-mediated overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, leads to deterioration of ␤-cell function, which is similar to that found in diabetes. Overexpression of GFAT or treatment
... AT or treatment with glucosamine results in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduction in the expression levels of several ␤-cell specific genes (insulin, GLUT2, and glucokinase). Additionally, the DNA binding activity of PDX-1, an important transcription factor for these three genes, was markedly reduced. These phenomena were not mimicked by the induction of O-linked glycosylation with an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, PUG-NAc. It was also found that glucosamine increases hydrogen peroxide levels and that several hexosamine pathway-mediated changes were suppressed by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to deterioration of ␤-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress rather than O-linked glycosylation. Thus, the hexosamine pathway may contribute to the deterioration of ␤-cell function found in diabetes.