Does Physical Exercise Always Improve Bone Quality in Rats?
Hugues Portier, Delphine Benaitreau, Stéphane Pallu
For decades, the osteogenic effect from different physical activities on bone in rodents remained uncertain. This literature review presents for the first time the effects on five exercise models (treadmill running, wheel running, swimming, resistance training and vibration modes) in three different experimental rat groups (males, females, osteopenic) on bone quality. The bone parameters presented are bone mineral density, micro-architectural and mechanical properties, and osteoblast/osteocyte
... nd osteoclast parameters. This review shows that physical activities have a positive effect (65% of the results) on bone status, but we clearly observed a difference amongst the different protocols. Even if treadmill running is the most used protocol, the resistance training constitutes the first exercise model in term of osteogenic effects (87% of the whole results obtained on this model). The less osteogenic model is the vibration mode procedure (31%). It clearly appears that the gender plays a role on the bone response to swimming and wheel running exercises. Besides, we did not observe negative results in the osteopenic population with impact training, wheel running and vibration activities. Moreover, about osteoblast/osteocyte parameters, we conclude that high impact and resistance exercise (such jumps and tower climbing) seems to increase bone formation more than running or aerobic exercise. Among the different protocols, literature has shown that the treadmill running procedure mainly induces osteogenic effects on the viability of the osteocyte lineage in both males and females or ovariectomized rats; running in voluntary wheels contributes to a negative effect on bone metabolism in older male models; whole-body vertical vibration is not an osteogenic exercise in female and ovariectomized rats; whereas swimming provides controversial results in female models. For osteoclast parameters only, running in a voluntary wheel for old males, the treadmill running program at high intensity in ovariectomized rats, and the swimming program in a specific ovariectomy condition have detrimental consequences.