mTOR target NDRG1 confers MGMT-dependent resistance to alkylating chemotherapy

M Weiler, J Blaes, S Pusch, F Sahm, M Czabanka, S Luger, L Bunse, G Solecki, V Eichwald, M Jugold, S Hodecker, M Osswald (+16 others)
2014
A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also by therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids, and chronic
more » ... ds, and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, p53, and the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway. Resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. On a molecular level, NDRG1 bound and stabilized methyltransferases, chiefly O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a key enzyme for resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma patients. In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids. ABSTRACT A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG)1 as a key determinant of resistance towards alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1alpha, p53 and the mTOR complex (mTORC)2/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK)1 pathway. Resistance towards alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In post-treatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant
doi:10.5167/uzh-95401 fatcat:a2fhdoxlazdkfmqrf6sesxbdsm