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Two-dimensional GIS are extensively used in geology to create, analyse, and interpret geological map models. However, these systems are unable to represent the Earth's subsurface in three spatial dimensions. The objective of this article is to overcome this deficiency and to provide a general framework for a 3d GIS. The presented approach is based on existing 3d geomodelling theory and software, and is characterized by an integrated data model for geological observation data and geomodels, datadoi:10.1016/j.cageo.2005.06.016 fatcat:bpa2auvgivbftf6dh56xgfnsli