Uremic Toxins and Their Relation with Oxidative Stress Induced in Patients with CKD

Anna Pieniazek, Joanna Bernasinska-Slomczewska, Lukasz Gwozdzinski
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The presence of toxins is believed to be a major factor in the development of uremia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Uremic toxins have been divided into 3 groups: small substances dissolved in water, medium molecules: peptides and low molecular weight proteins, and protein-bound toxins. One of the earliest known toxins is urea, the concentration of which was considered negligible in CKD patients. However, subsequent studies have shown that it
more » ... ave shown that it can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induce insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo, as well as cause carbamylation of proteins, peptides, and amino acids. Other uremic toxins and their participation in the damage caused by oxidative stress to biological material are also presented. Macromolecules and molecules modified as a result of carbamylation, oxidative stress, and their adducts with uremic toxins, may lead to cardiovascular diseases, and increased risk of mortality in patients with CKD.
doi:10.3390/ijms22126196 fatcat:sdiiowi4gfb2jnapmdgipemu2m