HPV16-Genotyper: A Computational Tool for Risk-Assessment, Lineage Genotyping and Recombination Detection in HPV16 Sequences, Based on a Large-Scale Evolutionary Analysis

Marios Nikolaidis, Dimitris Tsakogiannis, Garyfalia Bletsa, Dimitris Mossialos, Christine Kottaridi, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Panayotis Markoulatos, Grigoris D. Amoutzias
2021 Diversity  
Previous analyses have identified certain but limited evidence of recombination among HPV16 genomes, in accordance with a general perception that DNA viruses do not frequently recombine. In this evolutionary/bioinformatics study we have analyzed more than 3600 publicly available complete and partial HPV16 genomes. By studying the phylogenetic incongruence, similarity plots and the distribution patterns of lineage-specific SNPs, we identify several potential recombination events between the two
more » ... ajor HPV16 evolutionary clades. These two clades comprise the (widely considered) phenotypically more benign (lower risk) lineage A and the (widely considered) phenotypically more aggressive (higher risk) non-European lineages B, C and D. We observe a frequency of potential recombinant sequences ranging between 0.3 and 1.2% which is low, but nevertheless considerable. Our findings have clinical implications and highlight that HPV16 genotyping and risk assessment based only on certain genomic regions and not the entire genome may provide a false genotype and, therefore, its associated risk estimate. Finally, based on this analysis, we have developed a bioinformatics tool that automates the entire process of HPV16 lineage genotyping, recombination detection and further identifies, within the submitted sequences, SNPs that have been reported in the literature to increase the risk of cancer.
doi:10.3390/d13100497 fatcat:tagyv4ka4fewjcihkdlrjfzpsi