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The universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) has distinct benefits in that it supports a wide range of quality of service (QoS) criteria that users require in order to fulfill their requirements. The transmission of video and audio in real-time applications places a high demand on the cellular network, therefore QoS is a major problem in these applications. The ability to provide QoS in the UMTS backbone network necessitates an active QoS mechanism in order to maintain the necessarydoi:10.11591/eei.v10i6.3139 fatcat:awpn56sfpjahpaqqoepkntcezq