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Acoustic radiation efficiency is defined as the ratio of sound power radiated to the surface vibration power of a piston with equivalent surface area. It has been shown that the radiation efficiency is maximized and may exceed unity when the structural and acoustic wavelengths are approximately equal. The frequency at which this occurs is called the critical frequency and can be shifted with structural modifications. This has proven to be an effective way to reduce noise. The standard radiationdoi:10.13023/etd.2019.119 fatcat:4r5wo6xlcje3zgmw76q47qmv6q