Assessing Cardiac Metabolism

Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Martin E. Young, Gary D. Lopaschuk, E. Dale Abel, Henri Brunengraber, Victor Darley-Usmar, Christine Des Rosiers, Robert Gerszten, Jan F. Glatz, Julian L. Griffin, Robert J. Gropler, Hermann-Georg Holzhuetter (+9 others)
2016 Circulation Research  
1659 A s a biological pump, the heart converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. This energy transfer is achieved through the coordinated activation or inactivation of enzymes, ion channels, and contractile, structural, and membrane proteins. The main goal of this statement is to describe how the many aspects of energy transfer in the heart are assessed, keeping in mind that metabolism is the transformation of a substrate to a product. The heart's energy needs are difficult to
more » ... : The human heart, for example, pumps 7200 L of blood each day against an average mean arterial pressure of 100 mm Hg. In the same time period, the human heart consumes >20 g of carbohydrates (glucose and lactate) and >30 g of fat (fatty acids [FAs] and triacylglycerols [TGs]), as energy-providing substrates, whereas it uses 35 L of oxygen to support the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. 1 In humans, the heart is responsible for ≈10% of whole-body fuel consumption. The conceptual gap between cardiac metabolism and cardiovascular health is rapidly closing, as shown by wide interest in the components of cardioprotective diets. 2 Abstract-In a complex system of interrelated reactions, the heart converts chemical energy to mechanical energy. Energy transfer is achieved through coordinated activation of enzymes, ion channels, and contractile elements, as well as structural and membrane proteins. The heart's needs for energy are difficult to overestimate. At a time when the cardiovascular research community is discovering a plethora of new molecular methods to assess cardiac metabolism, the methods remain scattered in the literature. The present statement on "Assessing Cardiac Metabolism" seeks to provide a collective and curated resource on methods and models used to investigate established and emerging aspects of cardiac metabolism. Some of those methods are refinements of classic biochemical tools, whereas most others are recent additions from the powerful tools of molecular biology. The aim of this statement is to be useful to many and to do justice to a dynamic field of great complexity.
doi:10.1161/res.0000000000000097 pmid:27012580 pmcid:PMC5130157 fatcat:7wzctwza3ndufarjswlufpc7xm