International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment An Evaluation of Metal cations and anions Concentration in Surface Water from Six selected areas of Coastal Guyana via Flame Atomic Spectroscopy
Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ
The concentration of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd, and anions: Cl-, NO 3-and SO 4 2-and PO 4 3-were determined for six selected surface waters of coastal Guyana. It was found that the concentration was area dependent. Cl-anion registered the highest value of 85.0 ± 1.0 mg/L at area (5). Area (3) registered a value of 0.15 ± 0.0 mg/L for NO 3-. In areas such as (1) and (2), the surface waters showed negligible detection for NO 3-. The highest value for SO 4 2-, 18.95 ± 0.97 mg/L was
... ed for area (2). The toxic heavy metals such as Pb and Cd showed low and no detection in some areas. For Cd, this range from 0.002 ± 0.00 to 0.03 ± 0.00 mg/L, with the highest occurring at area (3). Pb was undetected in most areas. In areas of detection, the highest concentration of 0.05 ± 0.0 11 mg/L was noted. With the exception of Pb in areas (4) and (5) and Cu in area (1), the concentration of these metal ions/element and anions are below the threshold limit in surface water as accepted by International accepted standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, EPA and thus are no threat to the national livelihood. However, the country surface water must be continually tested as anthropogenic activities increases. Introduction Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water [1-7]. Providing sufficient quantities of high quality water to satisfy our domestic, industrial and agricultural needs is an ongoing global problem. Increasing population size, climate change and pollution will only exacerbate the global status. There is no physical shortage of water on the planet earth as it covers 70% of the globe. However, 97% of the world water is saline and is thus non-drinkable, 2% is locked in glaciers and polar ice caps, resulting in 1% to meet humanity needs . Guyana"s water need continual monitoring to assess the concentration of toxic elements  .