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A characteristic mode (CM) formulation is developed for the modal analysis of microstrip antennas. It is derived from the mixed-potential integral equation (MPIE) with spatial-domain Green's functions for multilayered media, where spatial-domain Green's functions take into account the effect of the multilayered media. The resultant characteristic currents and fields are orthogonal with each other among different orders of modes. Together with the eigenvalues and their deduced indicators, thedoi:10.1155/2016/9421050 fatcat:yctiapcf55dqhhadw5wtmvji7e