Decision letter: Human ORC/MCM density is low in active genes and correlates with replication time but does not delimit initiation zones [peer_review]

Bruce Stillman, Bruce Stillman, Kevin Struhl
2020 unpublished
Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates during S phase from origins that have been licensed in the preceding G1 phase. Here, we compare ChIP-seq profiles of the licensing factors Orc2, Orc3, Mcm3, and Mcm7 with gene expression, replication timing, and fork directionality profiles obtained by RNA-seq, Repli-seq, and OK-seq. Both, the origin recognition complex (ORC) and the minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) are significantly and homogeneously depleted from transcribed genes, enriched at gene
more » ... promoters, and more abundant in early-than in late-replicating domains. Surprisingly, after controlling these variables, no difference in ORC/MCM density is detected between initiation zones, termination zones, unidirectionally replicating regions, and randomly replicating regions. Therefore, ORC/MCM density correlates with replication timing but does not solely regulate the probability of replication initiation. Interestingly, H4K20me3, a histone modification proposed to facilitate late origin licensing, was enriched in late-replicating initiation zones and gene deserts of stochastic replication fork direction. We discuss potential mechanisms specifying when and where replication initiates in human cells.
doi:10.7554/elife.62161.sa1 fatcat:4f4bb2bxaban3hbwxzw35fhrd4