Influence of aberrations and roughness on the chromatic confocal signal based on experiments and wave-optical modeling
This paper addresses the effect and influence of wave optical aberrations and surface roughness on the chromatic confocal signal and resulting measurement errors. Two possible approaches exist for implementing chromatic confocal imaging based on either refraction or diffraction. Both concepts are compared and an expression for the expected chromatic longitudinal aberrations when using a diffractive optical element is derived. Since most chromatic confocal sensors are point sensors, the
... n on wave-optical aberrations is focused on spherical aberrations. Against common belief, the effect of spherical aberrations cannot be eliminated in the calibration process using for instance a piezo mounted mirror. It will be shown in the following that even a diffraction limited system with peak to valley spherical aberration smaller than 0.25 wavelength suffers from measurement errors. Experimental results will be shown to highlight this important issue. In order to develop a deeper understanding of the underlying physics, a wave-optical simulation environment has been realized. This wave-optical model furthermore enables the investigation of the influence of roughness. Herethereto the correct choice of numerical aperture when investigating a rough surface is based on a heuristic approach. Using the wave-optical simulations an explanation for the increased noise when employing a low numerical aperture to examine rough surfaces will be derived. Furthermore, a formula is presented to support the selection of the correct numerical aperture with regards to the roughness parameters of the surface under investigation.