Respon Morfo-Fisiologi Genotipe Kedelai terhadap Naungan Jagung dan Ubikayu Morpho-Physiological Response of Soybean Genotypes Under Maize and Cassava Shading

J Agron, Indonesia
2018 Jl. Raya Kendalpayak KM 8 KP   unpublished
Study on soybeans morpho-physiological responses in artificial or natural shade are beneficial to determine the effects of shade on morpho-physiology and yield of soybean. This research was aimed to study the morpho-physiological responses of soybean varieties under shading of maize and cassava compared to arficial shading. The research was conducted in Kendalpayak Research Station, ILETRI, from February to May 2016 used split plot design with three replications. The main plot was three shade
more » ... t was three shade sources: N1:black paranet 50%, N2: maize shade, and N3: cassava shade, while the sub plot was five soybean varieties: Dena 1, Dena 2, Argopuro, Panderman, and Grobogan. Soybean varieties showed morpho-physiology differences depending on the shade source. Soybean grown under shading of cassava had plant height, leaf area ratio, and leaf area lower than under shading of paranet and maize. Cassava shade also caused soybean had higher growth rate, net assimilation rate, and yield than those under paranet and maize shade. Shade-tolerant varieties (Dena 1 and Dena 2) had high yield on all kind of shade. Less tolerant varieties (Panderman and Grobogan) had higher yield under cassava shade and lower yield under paranet and maize shade. Maize crop had similar shade effects with 50% paranet shade. PENDAHULUAN Radiasi matahari sangat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman melalui proses fotosintesis. Tanaman beradaptasi terhadap perubahan iradiasi dengan modifikasi morfologi dan fisiologi, sehingga energi cahaya yang tersedia dapat digunakan secara efisien (Koike, 2013). Kekurangan cahaya akibat naungan menyebabkan perubahan morfo-fisiologi tanaman, seperti meningkatnya luas daun spesifik, panjang dan lebar daun, namun di sisi lain menurunkan diamater batang dan total bahan kering tanaman (Perrin et al., 2013). Sundari dan Susanto (2015) melaporkan bahwa intensitas naungan hingga 75% meningkatkan tinggi tanaman dan luas daun spesifik, tetapi mengurangi jumlah dan luas daun, laju penyerapan cahaya, laju fotosintesis, indeks klorofil daun, jumlah polong isi, dan bobot biji per tanaman kedelai.
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