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In this digital age, ports face stiff competition in global supply chain. Smart ports, as high performing ports, utilize information and communications technology (ICT) to provide a wide range of smart applications, resulting in vastly improved vessels and container management among others, which subsequently improve the competitiveness and sustainability of the national economy. While various novel solutions, such as information system and locating system, have been proposed to improve smartdoi:10.1109/access.2020.2990961 fatcat:7vll62tndzf2za5tfuk6gpuvzu