Receiver-driven Layered Multicast Permission to make digital/hard copy of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, the copyright notice, the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of ACM, Inc. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.SIGCOMM '9 ... [chapter]

Steven McCanne, Jacobson Van, Martin Vetterli
<span title="">2002</span> <i title="Elsevier"> Readings in Multimedia Computing and Networking </i> &nbsp;
State of the art, real-time, rate-adaptive, multimedia applications adjust their transmission rate to match the available network capacity. Unfortunately, this source-based rate-adaptation performs poorly in a heterogeneous multicast environment because there is no single target rate -the conflicting bandwidth requirements of all receivers cannot be simultaneously satisfied with one transmission rate. If the burden of rate-adaption is moved from the source to the receivers, heterogeneity is
more &raquo; ... mmodated. One approach to receiver-driven adaptation is to combine a layered source coding algorithm with a layered transmission system. By selectively forwarding subsets of layers at constrained network links, each user receives the best quality signal that the network can deliver. We and others have proposed that selective-forwarding be carried out using multiple IP-Multicast groups where each receiver specifies its level of subscription by joining a subset of the groups. In this paper, we extend the multiple group framework with a rate-adaptation protocol called Receiver-driven Layered Multicast, or RLM. Under RLM, multicast receivers adapt to both the static heterogeneity of link bandwidths as well as dynamic variations in network capacity (i.e., congestion). We describe the RLM protocol and evaluate its performance with a preliminary simulation study that characterizes user-perceived quality by assessing loss rates over multiple time scales. For the configurations we simulated, RLM results in good throughput with transient short-term loss rates on the order of a few percent and long-term loss rates on the order of one percent. Finally, we discuss our implementation of a software-based Internet video codec and its integration with RLM.
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