Photobiomodulation by Near-Infrared 980-nm Wavelengths Regulates Pre-Osteoblast Proliferation and Viability through the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 Pathway

Dimitrios Agas, Reem Hanna, Stefano Benedicenti, Nicola De Angelis, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Andrea Amaroli
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
bone tissue regeneration remains a current challenge. A growing body of evidence shows that mitochondrial dysfunction impairs osteogenesis and that this organelle may be the target for new therapeutic options. Current literature illustrates that red and near-infrared light can affect the key cellular pathways of all life forms through interactions with photoacceptors within the cells' mitochondria. The current study aims to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which photobiomodulation
more » ... PBM) by 900-nm wavelengths can induce in vitro molecular changes in pre-osteoblasts. Methods: The PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Scholar databases were used. The manuscripts included in the narrative review were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The new experimental set-up was based on irradiation with a 980-nm laser and a hand-piece with a standard Gaussian and flat-top beam profile. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were irradiated at 0.75, 0.45, and 0.20 W in continuous-wave emission mode for 60 seconds (spot-size 1 cm2) and allowed to generate a power density of 0.75, 0.45, and 0.20 W/cm2 and a fluence of 45, 27, and 12 J/cm2, respectively. The frequency of irradiation was once, three times (alternate days), or five times (every day) per week for two consecutive weeks. Differentiation, proliferation, and cell viability and their markers were investigated by immunoblotting, immunolabelling, fluorescein-FragELTM-DNA, Hoechst staining, and metabolic activity assays. Results and conclusions: The 980-nm wavelength can photobiomodulate the pre-osteoblasts, regulating their metabolic schedule. The cellular signal activated by 45 J/cm2, 0.75 W and 0.75 W/cm2 consist of the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 pathway; differentiation markers were not affected, nor do other parameters seem to stimulate the cells. Our previous and present data consistently support the window effect of 980 nm, which has also been described in extracted mitochondria, through activation of signalling PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 and cyclin family, while the Wnt and Smads 2/3-β-catenin pathway was induced by 55 J/cm2, 0.9 W and 0.9 W/cm2.
doi:10.3390/ijms22147586 fatcat:fvsshzilxzb7nd2itrpjhcmbem