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Accurate occupancy is crucial for planning for sustainable buildings. Using massive, passively-collected mobile phone data, we introduce a novel framework to estimate building occupancy at unprecedented scale. We show that, at urban-scale, occupancy differs widely from current estimates based on building types. For commercial buildings, we find typical occupancy rates are 5 times lower than current assumptions imply, while for residential buildings occupancy rates vary widely by neighborhood.doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11685-w pmid:31427577 pmcid:PMC6700148 fatcat:cbusmsptj5cvdckqquv4fjne34