Evolution of Teaching Approaches for Science, Engineering and Technology within an Online Environment: A Review
Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic earlier this year destabilised the operations in the education sector, particularly in institutions of higher learning. Most of these institutions are now expected to teach online, assess their students using non-venue examinations and offer remote laboratory practical and experiments. However, many of these institutions were not prepared for such dynamic change in a such short space of time. Consequently, most of the institutions moved their mid-year
... their mid-year examinations to the October/November period. In addition, they are finding methods to conduct laboratory practical and experiments. Prominent researchers agree that institutions of higher learning are challenged by the current dispensation where academics are expected to implement new pedagogical approaches and take advantage of information and communications technology (ICT) for teaching and learning. Every module requires a specific teaching method, as a result, academics need to know about various methods available. Generally, the sciences and engineering modules are taught within the classroom environment and require experiential platforms to solidify the theoretical knowledge gained. The current study is aimed at assessing the evolution of teaching approaches and technologies in distance education regarding online delivery particularly in science, engineering and technology. Various search engines such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Sabinet, ProQuest and EBSCO were used to obtain relevant literature to depict popular teaching approaches and the relevant technologies. In order to access relevant literature, various key strings were used. The findings of the study revealed problem-based, apprenticeship and experimental, and competency-based learning as the most popular teaching approaches, particularly between 2010 and 2020. Project-based learning, case-based learning and communities of practice equally share the third position followed by integrative learning. Students and academics show that instant feedback provided by virtual labs yielded encouraging results. This shows that many students and their academics prefer the introduction of the virtual labs in their learning environment, especially from 2012 until recent. The literature further confirms the current findings that institutions of higher learning need to equip academics to be able to integrate technology within their teaching methods for students to continue to learn at ease.