A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention
The association of nutritional factors with cervical dysplasia was examined through a case-control study. Analysis was conducted in 257 cases and 133 controls confirmed both by cytological examination and colposcopic findings. A 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intake. Various risk factors (including age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, parity, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, human papillomavirus type 16 infection, and age and race)
... d age and race) were adjusted for their potential confounding effects. While analyses were also performed to adjust for total calories, results were not changed significantly. Among the nutrients examined, vitamin A intake showed a significantly increased risk at the lowest quartile compared to the highest quartile, with an odds ratio of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.2). A significant trend of increasing risk was also observed with lower intake of vitamin A (P = 0.05). Riboflavin showed increased risk at the two lower quartiles of intake with a trend test P value of 0.04. Increased risk was also found for lower intakes of vitamin C compared to the highest intake level. For folate, increased risk was found in the second highest quartile compared with the highest quartile with an odds ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.8). The calcium:phosphorus ratio showed an increased risk at the lowest level (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.3). Insufficient intake of vitamin A, riboflavin, ascorbate, and folate is associated with an increased risk of cervical dysplasia.